Matter is the substance which have mass & occupies space & matter is made up of tiny particles.
eg: Notebook, pen, star, sun, planet, air etc.
Characteristics of particles
Particles posses Kinetic energy. As the temperature rise, particles moves faster. Because Kinetic energy increases.
The space between the particles:-
The force of attraction:-
States of matter
|Definite shape||No definite shape||No definite shape|
|Distinct boundaries||No definite boundaries||No definite boundaries|
|Incompressible||Low compressible||Low compressible|
|Definite volume||Definite volume||No definite volume|
(i) Melting point:- The temperature at which the solid melts to form liquid at atmospheric pressure is called its melting point.
(Latent heat of fusion:- The amount of heat required to change 1 kg solid to its liquid state.)
(ii) Boiling point:- The temperature at which a liquid boil to form vapors at atmospheric pressure called its boiling point.
(Latent heat of vaporization:- The amount of heat required to change 1kg liquid to its gaseous state)
(iii) Sublimation:- The change of solid directly to vapor on heating and vapor into solid on cooling without passing through the liquid state is called sublimation.
Example: Camphor, Ammonium chloride, Naphthalene balls.
If we compress a gas in cylinder, the distance between the particles of gas is reduced and finally gas is liquified.
(LPG:- Liquified Petrol Gas)
(CNG:- Compressed Natural Gas)
It is a surface phenomenon in which liquid changes into vapors at any temperature below its boiling point is called evaporation.
Factors affecting evaporation
(i) Exposed surface area
The cooling caused by evaporation is based on the fact that when a liquid evaporates, takes ‘latent heat of vaporization’ from surroundings which on loosing heat gets cool.
Note:- Kelvin is the SI unit of temperature, 0°C= 273.15 K. For convenience, we take 0°C = 273K after rounding off the decimal. To change a temperature on the Kelvin scale to the Celsius scale you have to substract 273 from the given temperature, and to convert the temperature on the Celsius scale to the Kelvin scale you have to add 273 to the given temperature.
(i) Solid (ii) Liquid (iii) Gas (iv) Plasma (v) Bose Einstein condensate
It is a hot ionized gas consisting of equal number of positively charged ions and negative charged electrons.
(Example: Lightning stars etc.)
It is a state of matter in which separate atoms or subatomic particles cooled to temperature very near to absolute zero.
(Example: Neutron star, Liquid helium)