The journey of people from gathering to growing food is available in detail.
Look at the table below to see where evidence of grain and bones of domesticated animals have been found.
|Wheat, barley, sheep, goat, cattle||Mehrgarh (Pakistan)|
|Rice, fragmentary animals bones||Koldihwa (Uttar Pradesh)|
|Rice, cattle||Mahagara (Uttar Pradesh)|
|Wheat and lentil||Gufkral (Kashmir)|
|Wheat and lentil, dog, cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo||Burzahom (Kashmir)|
|Wheat, green gram, barley, buffalo, ox||Chirand (Bihar)|
|Millet, cattle, sheep, goat, pig||Hallur (Andhra Pradesh)|
|Black gram, millet cattle, sheep, pig||Paiyampalli (Andhra Pradesh)|
These are just some of the sites from which grain and bones have been found.
Archaeologists have found traces of the settled life like huts or houses at some sites. For instance, in Burzahom people built pit – houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. Archaeologists have also found cooking hearths both inside and outside the huts.
Stone tools have been found from many sites as well. The tools were polished to give the fine cutting edge. And mortars and pestles used for grinding grain and other plant produce. These were different from Palaeolithic tools that’s why they are called Neolithic.
Usually, two to three generations live together in small settlements or villages. Most families are related to one another and groups of such families form a tribe.
Members of a tribe follow occupations like hunting, gathering, farming, herding, and fishing. Usually, women do most of the agricultural work, including preparing the ground, sowing seeds, looking after the growing plants, and harvesting grain. Children often look after plants, driving away animals and birds that might eat them. Women also thresh, husk, and grind grain. Men usually lead large herds of animals in search of pasture. Children often look after small flocks. The cleaning of animals and milking is done by both men and women.
Some men are regarded as leaders. They may be old and experienced. Old women are respected for their wisdom and experience.
Tribes have their own language, music, stories, and paintings. They also have their own gods and goddesses.
Land, forests grasslands, and water are regarded as the wealth of the entire tribe, and everybody shares and uses these together. There are no sharp differences between the rich and the poor.
When people die, their relatives and friends generally pay respect to them. People look after them, in the belief that there is some form of life after death. Burial is one such arrangement. Several burial sites have been found at Mehrgarh. In one instance, the dead person was buried with goats, which were probably meant to serve as food in the next world.
This is a site on the hills near the Brahmaputra Valley, close to routes leading into China and Myanmar. Here stone tools, including mortars and pestles, have been found. Other finds include jadeite, a stone that may have been brought from China. Also, find tools made of fossil wood (ancient wood that has hardened into stone) and pottery.
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