The pottery, especially bowls and plates, were found from archaeological sites, Traders may have carried them to sell at other places.
South India was famous for gold, spices, pepper, and precious stones. Pepper was particularly valued in the Roman Empire, that’s why it was known as black gold. There must have been a lot of trade as many Roman gold coins have been found in south India.
The southern half of the subcontinent is marked by a long coastline, and with hills, plateaus, and river valleys. Kaveri is the most fertile which is controlled by three chiefs and kings around 2300 years named Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas.. Sangam poems mention the muvendar. Muvendar is a Tamil word meaning three chiefs. Puhar and Kaveripattinam were the two port of the Cholas, and Madurai was the capital of the Pandyas. Around 200 years later a dynasty known as the Satavahanas became powerful in western India. The most important ruler of the Satavahanas was Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni.
Techniques of making silk were first invented in China around 7000 years ago. While the methods remained a closely guarded secret for thousands years, some people went to china and carried silk with them. The paths they followed came to be known as the Silk Route.
About 2000 years ago, wearing silk became the fashion amongst rulers and rich people in Rome. Silk was very expensive because there was only single source to brought silk was China. The paths were also very difficult as many robbers were there on the routes who used to demand money. Many kings tried to control the large routes save traders.
The best-known of the rulers who controlled the Silk Route were the Kushanas, who ruled over central Asia and north-west India around 2000 years ago. Their two major centres of power were Peshawar and Mathura. Taxila was also included in their kingdom. A branch of the Silk Route extended from Central Asia down to the seaports at the mouth of the river Indus, from where silk was shipped to the Roman Empire. Traders were use gold coins issued by the Kushanas along the Silk Route.
The most famous Kushana ruler was Kanishka, who ruled around 1900 years ago. He organized a Buddhisht council. Ashvaghosha, a poet who composed a biography of the Buddha, the Buddhacharita, lived in his court. Now Buddhist scholars began writing in Sanskrit.
Now a new form of Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhism developed. Bodhisattvas were supposed to be persons who had attained enlightenment. The worship of Bodhisattvas spread throughout Central Asia, China, and later to Korea and Japan.
It also spread south eastwards, to Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, and other parts of Southeast Asia including Indonesia. The older form of Buddhism, known as Theravada Buddhism was more popular in these areas.
Pilgrims often travelled to distant lands. Most of them were Chinese Buddhist pilgrims, Fa Xian, who come to the subcontinent about 1600 years ago, Xuan Zang came around 1400 years ago and I-Qing, came 50 years after Xuan Zang. They wrote of the dangers they encountered on their travels. They also carried back the books with them. Xuan Zang carried back with him statues of the Buddha and over 600 manuscripts loaded on the backs of 20 horses. Over 50 manuscripts were lost when the boat capsized when crossing the Indus. He spent the rest life translating the remaining manuscripts from Sanskrit to Chinese.