An ecosystem is a geographical area over plants, animals, and other organisms as well as weather and landscapes. It work together to form a bubble of life. It was proposed by a British ecologist A. G. Tansley(1935). It represents the basic fundamental, functional unit of ecology. It comprises of the biotic community together with its abiotic environment.

  • Ecosystem is the functional unit of nature. In short where living organism interact with each other and with their environment
  • Ecosystem can be very large or very small. Tide pools, the Ponds left by the ocean is the tide goes out are complete Tiny ecosystems. Further It can be recognised as self regulating and self sustaining units of landscapes. It maybe terrestrial or aquatic. forests, grasslands and deserts are example of terrestrial ecosystems. The aquatic ecosystems can be freshwater or saltwater type.
  • In addition the whole surface of earth is a series of connected ecosystems. Further ecosystems are often connected in a large biome. Biomes are large sections for example land, sea or atmosphere. Forests, Ponds, reefs, and the Tundra are all types of biomes.
  • Ecosystem is an open system. Hence there is a continuous and variable entry and loss of energy and materials. Moreover There are different terms ecosystem. For example biogeocoenosis, geobiocoenosis, microcosm, ecosm, biosystem etc.


There are two types of ecosystem

Natural ecosystem: Natural ecosystem is a community of living and nonliving organisms which are completely dependent on solar radiation i.e., forest, oceans, grasslands, Lakes, rivers and deserts. This ecosystem is the source of food, fuel, fodder and medicines

Man made ecosystems: The inputs provided by the human efforts which are dependent on solar energy i.e., agriculture fields and aquaculture ponds. such ecosystems are also dependent on fossil fuels, i.e., urban and industrial ecosystem

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